Earth And Space Science Final Review Essay

Decreased oxygen levels could present hidden threat to marine species

Species living in coastal regions could face a significant future threat from reduced levels of oxygen in the marine environment, according to research published in Nature Scientific Reports.

New research solves the 60-year-old paleontological mystery of a 'phantom' dicynodont

A new study has re-discovered fossil collections from a 19th century hermit that validate 'phantom' fossil footprints collected in the 1950s showing dicynodonts coexisting with dinosaurs.

Stephen Hawking, best-known physicist of his time, has died

Stephen Hawking, whose brilliant mind ranged across time and space though his body was paralyzed by disease, died early Wednesday, a University of Cambridge spokesman said. He was 76 years old.

Why does a spinning egg stand up?

If a hard-boiled egg is spun fast enough on a table, it will slowly stand upright as it continues to spin. Although the spinning egg rises due to the force of friction between the egg and the table, the full explanation involves ...

Multifunctional metalens unlocks with light

Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a flat optical component that is simultaneously a metalens, a microscope objective that can resolve details smaller ...

It's not only size, but scales that matter in some male moth antennae

Male moths have evolved intricate scale arrangements on their antennae to enhance detection of female sex pheromones, which allows them to keep their antennae small enough to maximise flying, new research suggests.

Scientists help solve mystery of why comets emit X-rays

The mystery of why comets travelling through Space give off X-ray emissions has been solved thanks to new research undertaken by a team that included science staff from STFC's Central Laser Facility (CLF) and RAL Space.

Warm Arctic means colder, snowier winters in northeastern US, study says

Scientists from Rutgers University-New Brunswick and Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) have linked the frequency of extreme winter weather in the United States to Arctic temperatures.

Feeding wildlife can influence migration, spread of disease

Animal migration patterns are changing as humans alter the landscape, according to new research from the University of Georgia. Those changes can affect wildlife interactions with parasites-with potential impacts on public ...

Genetic study shows explosion of diversity in fish after end-Cretaceous mass extinction

A team of researchers from several institutions across the U.S. has found evidence suggesting that there was an explosion of diversity in fish after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. In their paper published in the journal ...

Ultra-white coating modelled on beetle scales

Researchers have developed a super-thin, non-toxic, lightweight, edible ultra-white coating that could be used to make brighter paints and coatings, for use in the cosmetic, food or pharmaceutical industries.

Researchers bring the bling to improve implants

In a world first, Australian researchers have harnessed the power of diamonds in a breakthrough that could lead to radical improvements in the way human bodies accept biomedical implants.

Pterosaurs went out with a bang, not a whimper

Fossils of six new species of pterosaurs - giant flying reptiles that flew over the heads of the dinosaurs - have been discovered by a research team led by the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath, revealing ...

Compassion helped Neanderthals to survive, new study reveals

They have an unwarranted image as brutish and uncaring, but new research has revealed just how knowledgeable and effective Neanderthal healthcare was.

Earth may be approaching a carbon dioxide threshold for melting ice in the Arctic

It may not rank among the all-time greatest dramas, but the history of ice on Greenland has been a source of scientific controversy for more than a decade.

Infected 'zombie ants' face no discrimination from nest mates

Carpenter ants infected with a specialized parasitic fungus are not subjected to aggression or isolation from their nest mates, and they continue to share in the colony's food resources until they leave the nest for the last ...

The occurrence of magnetism in the universe

Flows of molten metal can generate magnetic fields. This so-called dynamo effect creates cosmic magnetic fields, like those found on planets, moons and even asteroids. In the coming years, researchers are conducting a unique ...

World's largest cities depend on evaporated water from surrounding lands

Urbanization has taken billions of people from the rural countryside to urban centers, adding pressure to existing water resources. Many cities rely on renewable freshwater regularly refilled by precipitation, rather than ...

The early bird got to fly: Archaeopteryx was an active flyer

The question of whether the Late Jurassic dino-bird Archaeopteryx was an elaborately feathered ground dweller, a glider, or an active flyer has fascinated palaeontologists for decades. Valuable new information obtained with ...

Google guru Page tests flying taxis in New Zealand (Update)

Pilot-less flying taxis are being tested in New Zealand as part of a project backed by Google co-founder Larry Page that supporters say will revolutionise personal transport.

  • 1. 

    At the equator, the sun's rays always strike Earth

    • A. 

    • B. 

      At nearly a 90 degree angle

    • C. 

    • D. 

      No more than 8 hours each day.

  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not used as evidence of past climates?

    • A. 

    • B. 

      General circulation models

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 3. 

    Water cools

    • A. 

      More slowly than land does

    • B. 

      More quickly than land does

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 4. 

    Ocean currrents influence temperature by

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Heating or cooling the air

    • C. 

      Washing warm, dry sediments out to sea

    • D. 

      Dispersing the rays of the sun

  • 5. 

    Winds that blow in opposite directions in different seasons because of the differential heating of the land and the oceans are called

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 6. 

    When a moving air mass encounters a mountain range, the air mass

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 7. 

    In regions that have a mediterranean climate, almost all of the yearly precipitation falls

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 8. 

    The climate that has the largest annual temperature range is the

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Middle-latitude desert climate

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Humid continental climate

  • 9. 

    The pavement and buildings in cities affect the local climate by

    • A. 

      Decreasing the temperature

    • B. 

      Increasing the temperature

    • C. 

      Increasing the precipitation

    • D. 

      Decreasing the precipitation

  • 10. 

    Stars organized into a pattern are

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 11. 

    Days are caused by Earth's 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 12. 

    The seasons are caused by

    • A. 

      Earth's distance from the sun

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a tool that is used by astronomers to study radiation?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 14. 

    Which of the following is evidence of Earth's revolution?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 15. 

    Which of the following forms of radiation can be shielded by Earth's atmosphere?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not a space telescope?

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Chandra X-ray Observatory

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 17. 

    Which of the following marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 18. 

    Which of the following is evidence of Earth's rotation?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 19. 

    Copernicus's model of the solar system is

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 20. 

    Kepler's first law states that each planet orbits the sun in a path called a(n)

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 21. 

    The most distinctive feature of Jupiter is its

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 22. 

    The planet that has an axis of rotation that is almost parallel to the plane of its orbit is

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 23. 

    The tilt of the axis of Mars is nearly the same as that of

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 24. 

    The planet that rotates faster than any other planet in the solar system is

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 25. 

    Kepler's law hat describes how fast planets travel at different points in their orbits is called the law of 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 26. 

    All of the outer planets rotate with their axes perpendicular to their orbital planes except

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 27. 

    The first atmosphere of Earth contained a large amount of

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 28. 

    The hypothesis that states that the sun and the planets developed out of the same cloud of gas and dust is called the 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 29. 

    In the process of photosynthesis, green plants give off

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 30. 

    Dark areas on the moon that are smooth and that reflect little light are called

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 31. 

    What happened in the most recent stage in the development of the moon?

    • A. 

      The densest material sank to the core

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Earth's gravity captured the moon

    • D. 

      The number of meteorites hitting the moon decreased

  • 32. 

    During each orbit around Earth, the moon spins ons its axis

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 33. 

    In a lunar eclipse, the moon

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Is between Earth and the sun

    • D. 

      Blocks part of the sun from view

  • 34. 

    When the size of the lighted part of the moon's near side is decreasing, the moon is

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 35. 

    Compared with the other moons of Jupiter, the four Galilean moons are

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 36. 

    The main asteroid belt exists in a region between the orbits of 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 37. 

    Meteorites can provide information about

    • A. 

      The composition of the solar system before the planets formed.

    • B. 

    • C. 

      The destiny of the solar system.

    • D. 

  • 38. 

    According to Einstein's theory of relativity, in the formula E = mc2, the c stands for 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 39. 

    A nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei combine is called 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 40. 

    The part of the sun in which energy moves from atom to atom in the form of electromagnetic waves is called the

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 41. 

    The number of hydrogen atoms that fuse to form a helium atom is 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

    • F. 

    • G. 

    • H. 

  • 42. 

    The part of the sun that is normally visible from Earth is the

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 43. 

    Sunspots are regions of 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 44. 

    The sunspot cycle repeats about every 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 45. 

    Sudden outward eruptions of electrically charged particles from the sun are called

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 46. 

    Gusts of solar wind can cause

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 47. 

    Northern lights and southern lights are other names for

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 48. 

    The most common element in most stars is 

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 49. 

    Cosmic background radiation

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Comes equally from all directions

  • 50. 

    Stars appear to move in circular paths through the sky because 

    • A. 

      Earth rotates on its axis

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

      The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy

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